NATURAL ORIGINS OF THE "OZONE HOLE"
The last issue's article on natural, volcanic sources of hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride promised a summary of the work of Gordon W. Gribble.
Dr. Gribble, professor of Chemistry at Dartmouth College, has demonstrated conclusively that Freon, Halon and chemicals known as organohalogens occur in nature normally and in quantities often greater then those from man-made sources. NASA and others had earlier stated that the absence of natural sources proves that the "Ozone Hole" is man-made. (AM&A 8/95). Not quite!
In the July 1994 Environmental Science and Technology, a publication of the American Chemical Society, Dr. Gribble wrote that the best available 1968 information suggested that organic compounds containing covalently bound halogens were found only infrequently in nature. He write that while this was true 25 years ago, it is nothing but a myth today. The article cited 174 references. Starting about 1970, the number of discoveries of naturally-occurring organohalogens has had almost exponential growth.
Today we know that more than 2000 chlorinated and other halogenated chemicals are discharged into our biosphere by plants, marine organisms, insects, bacteria, fungi, mammals, and by other natural processes, such as volcanoes. Enzymatic, thermal, and other natural processes are constantly occurring in the oceans, atmosphere and soil that lead to formation of chlorinated phenol and many other chlorinated chemicals including dioxins and CFCs. Previously, they were thought to result only from the actions of humans. It is clear that for eons these natural processes have been producing chlorinated compounds and always have been a vital component of our ecosystems.
Gribble's discipline has so blossomed that The First International Conference on Naturally Produced Organohalogens was held in 1993 in The Netherlands.
Dr. Gribble's article produced two results:
Gaffney, EST 1/95 p8A, stated that Gribble's data on volcanic emissions of CFC (Freon) were collected high up in the gas plumes and were contaminated with atmospheric CFCs. However, both Gribble and Isidorov (field researcher) stated that the volcanic gas samples were actually collected directly from a fumarole below the surface. It would appear that some scientists are not above false accusations based on wishful thinking. In fact, Isidorov stated that the concentration of CFCs for the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka were 30 to 40 times higher than background concentrations and 10 to 30 times higher than those in typical urban air. One of the most active volcanoes in the world is Mt. Erebus in Antarctica, site of the "Ozone Hole". It kicks up more than a thousand tons of HCl and HF daily.
2) I began searching for more of Dr. Gribble's work. The best so far has been "Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds - A Survey" in Journal of Natural Products (10/92) with 556 references. He states that grossly inaccurate statements by science advisory boards "reflect a disturbing ignorance of the chemical composition of our environment and of biochemical processes therein." "Ironically, evidence is now available to indicate that organohalogen compounds have been present on earth for centuries. For example, organohalogen compounds have been isolated from ground water samples that date back 1300, 4600, and 5200 years." More was found in sediments dating back 800 years and cursors going back a billion years.
Gribble's work on natural sources effectively discredits the PC man-made "Ozone Hole" notion. We also already know from Gordon Dobson's 1963 and 1968 publications that the "Ozone Hole" is natural. (AM&A 1/ 95). First measured in 1956, not 1975 or 1985, seasonal fluctuations of the "Ozone Hole" have always been there. Similarly, the Nile and the Mississippi Rivers have always flooded. These are natural, if disturbing, phenomena.
In the third century, Turtullian wrote: "If the Tiber rises too high or the Nile too low, the cry is ŒThe Christians to the lions!' " There are parallels today.
The junk science hoax of the man-made "Ozone Hole" is being revealed to all.